Early detection is the key to curing cancer. However, because most tumours have begun to spread by the time obvious symptoms are noticed, it is important to have methods that can be used to screen high-risk groups before symptoms are observed. In this project, we will develop and validate a pioneering new type of urine test for the diagnosis of both bladder and prostate cancer. This approach uses leading new technologies to search for and analyse single cells that have been dislodged from tumours into the urine. Compared to existing technologies which analyse unfractionated urine samples, this approach has the potential to achieve unprecedented accuracy. These new tests will lead to cost-effective methods to screen for bladder and prostate cancer, enabling early detection and a major decrease in their impact on society.