Patients with chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD) require regular follow-up to monitor the progression of the disease and response to treatment. Currently, apart from echocardiography, which requires patients to visit a speciality centre and is expensive, there is no other test available to precisely monitor the heart function during regular follow-up. In this proposal, we aim to explore whether measuring heart-enriched microRNAs from salivary samples can be a simple tool to determine the progress of the disease and the effectiveness of the therapy. In addition, we will also explore the comparable expression pattern of salivary miRNAs among different ethnic populations in New Zealand. Salivary miRNAs as biomarkers for patients is a unique and unexplored area of research that will transform the way for the use of biomarkers in clinical practice. In the long term, this could result in developing a novel biomarker assay to test the prognosis of IHD.